Difference between std::move and std::forward

In really simple terms, std::move returns an argument as an rvalue reference while std::forward returns either an lvalue reference or an rvalue reference based on how the argument was passed in to the current function. While this is fairly obvious once you get the hang of it, it can be quite tricky to grasp earlier on. The easiest way to see how they work differently is to try some code such as the following:

void Show(int&&)
	cout << "int&& called" << endl;

void Show(int&)
	cout << "int& called" << endl;

template<typename T> void Foo(T&& x)
	cout << "straight: ";

	cout << "move: ";
	cout << "forward: ";
	cout << endl;

int _tmain(void)

	int x=10;
	return 0;

The output of the above code is:

straight: int& called
move: int&& called
forward: int&& called

straight: int& called
move: int&& called
forward: int& called

When Foo is called with an rvalue, T&& is deduced as int&&. But the variable itself is an lvalue within that function. So the straight call calls the Show(int&) overload – no surprises there. Both the move-call and the forward-call calls Show(int&&) as expected. In the 2nd case, Foo is called with an lvalue, and again the straight call will go to Show(int&) while the move-call will go to Show(int&&). Now here’s where forward comes in handy, it will go to Show(int&) because that’s what T has been deduced to in this instance of the function call (perfect forwarding). If you are wondering why, the collapsing rule for T&& collapses it to T& during template argument type deduction.


Building Metro apps without Windows 8

This is an FAQ on the forums. And unfortunately but unsurprisingly, the answer is no, you cannot build a Metro app without Windows 8. If you are running Windows 7 and don’t want to risk screwing up your OS, you could install Windows 8 on a VM or dual-boot off a VHD/2nd partition. Those options are reasonably performant, and more so if you have an SSD.

C# and the need (lack of) for move semantics

Someone recently asked me why C# does not support move semantics. Well, C# mostly deals with references, so you don’t have to to deal with copy constructors called on temporary objects. C# does support value types too but they are nearly always used for POD (plain old data) types. And when there is the need for a copy, what’s usually done is to implement an interface such as ICloneable. In the C# (and .NET) world, assignments are mostly reference copies. A reference variable takes the value of another reference variable. In summary, C# as a language does not have a need for move semantics.